The Four Main Personality Perspectives

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Multiple personality perspective exist, and most main ones are categorized into four central Personality perspectives. They were reporting information. Each of these personality perspectives attempts to explain different patterns in personality. These Personality Perspectives include how these patterns form and how people differ individually.

Four Perspectives of Personality are

1. Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic

2. Humanistic

3. Trait Perspective

4. Social Cognitive Perspective.

Psychoanalytical and Psychodynamic Perspective

The psychoanalytic view of personality emphasizes early childhood events and the unconscious mind. Sigmund Freud, a psychiatrist, developed this perspective on personality. Freud believed that items concealed in the unconscious might reveal in various ways, including dreams, free association, and tongue slips.

Prominent thinkers of psychodynamics are Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney, who were called Neo-Freudians. Who agreed on the centrality of the unconscious. In comparison, they disagreed on other parts of Freud’s beliefs.

Major Theorist

Sigmund Freud: Freud mainly stressed the importance of early childhood events—the influence of sexual instincts and the unconscious in forming and developing a personality.

Erik Erikson: Emphasized the social and psychological elements of personality development. That includes the identity crisis and how personality changes and shapes throughout life.

Carl Jung: Focused on concepts termed as the archetypes, collective unconscious, and psychological types.

Alfred Adler: Personality is said to be driven by a desire for supremacy, overcoming obstacles, and getting closer to self-realization. This ambition to acquire supremacy originates from Adler’s belief in universal sentiments of inadequacy.

Karen Horney: The emphasis is on conquering basic anxiety, or the feeling of being alone and alone in the world. She emphasized the importance of socioeconomic and cultural variables in influencing personality, particularly the parent-child bond.

Humanistic Perspective

The humanistic perspective of personality focuses on human potential for psychological growth, Personal awareness, and free will. Its emphasis is on a more positive outlook on human nature. This perspective is based on how each person can achieve their potential.

Major Theorist

The following are the most significant thinkers of humanistic perspectives:

Carl Rogers: Carl Rogers believed in people’s inherent goodness and emphasized the need for free will and psychological growth. He proposed that the actualizing urge drives human behavior.

Abraham Meshlow: proposed a hierarchy of requirements to inspire individuals. The most fundamental wants are centered on items required for survival, such as food and water. However, as people progress up the hierarchy, these needs shift to esteem and self-actualization.

Trait Perspective

The trait perspective of personality centers on identifying, describing, and measuring human personality traits. Researchers hope that by studying these characteristics, they can better understand individual variances.

Major Theorists

Below are the most critical trait perspective theorists:

Hans Eysenck: Suggested that there are three aspects of personality:

  • Extraversion-introversion,
  •  Emotional stability-neuroticism, and
  •  Psychoticism.

Raymond Cattell: Identified Sixteen personality traits that he believed could be utilized to measure and understand individual personality differences.

Paul Costa and Robert McCrae: They Introduced the most famous big five theory, which identifies five key dimensions or aspects of personality:

  1. Neuroticism
  2. Extroversion.
  3. Openness to experience
  4. Agreeableness
  5. Conscientiousness

Social Cognitive Perspective

Personality from a social-cognitive viewpoint emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, situational impacts, and cognitive processes.

Major Theorist

The social cognitive perspective’s primary proponent is:

Bandura Albert: The value of social learning, or learning via observation, was emphasized. His idea emphasized the importance of conscious thinking, such as self-efficacy or skill conviction.

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