What is Psychology

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The story of psychology is one of the people attempting to better understand themselves. The discipline’s focus, methodology, and explanatory models have shifted as it has progressed.
Consider how psychology evolved from philosophical theories about the mind to a current research-based discipline.

Etymologically- Two greek word

The term psychology is derived from two Greek words: psyche, which means “soul,” and psychology. The term logos refers to the study of a subject. These two Greek origins were originally combined. In the 16th century, when the psyche was used to refer to the soul, it was employed to describe a field of study. As opposed to the body, the spirit, or the mind (Boring, 1966). Not until the early 18th century only in the twentieth century did the term receive widespread use among academics.

By then, it had taken on its literal definition, “the study of the mind.” Of course, humans have always been fascinated by the secrets of the mind. In such cases, Psychology is as old as the human race itself. However, it was only around 140 years ago when it became a scientific science.

defining Psychology

Defining Psychology

Here we will provide you the multiple definitions of Psychology but the most real one is very simple ” PsychologyThe Study of Mental process and behavior”. Now have a look at other definitions.

“The scientific study of humans, the mind, and behavior is known as psychology.” It is a vibrant academic field as well as an important professional practice.”

British Psychological Society

“The Scientific study of Humans Behavior and their mental processes

American Psychological Association

“Psychology is a study that seeks to improve our understanding and control over the behavior of the entire organism.”

William McDougall

“Psychology is the science of mental life, including both its manifestations and circumstances.”

William James

Psychology is defined as the “science of individual acttivities and actions.”

R. S Woodworth

“Psychology is a science of observable behavior”

J. B Watson

“The scientific study of behavior and mental processes is known as psychology.” It includes not just what individuals do, but also their ideas, emotions, perceptions, reasoning processes, memories, and even the basic operations that keep the body running.

Feldman

” Psychology is science of human behavior and experiences”

B. F skinner

The science of facts, phenomena, or oneself is psychology.

John Dewey

The scientific study of how living things behave as they interact with the outside environment is known as psychology.

Kurt Koffka

Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. It includes biological influences, social pressures, and environmental factors that influence how people think, behave and feel. Psychology is defined as the science that studies mental processes, experiences, and behaviors in various contexts. Collect data systematically using methods from the biological and social sciences. Make data meaningful and organize it as knowledge.
Of course, people have always wondered about the mysteries of the mind ( Mental Processes) and behavior. This Psychology is as old as mankind. But psychology emerged as a scientific field only about 140 years ago. So from all the above definitions, we have now three things to explain. Mental processes, Experiences, and behaviors.

Explaining Mental Process

Mental processes are the activities of the mind and brain associated with cognition. We use mental processes when we think, remember, or solve problems. However, these mental activities are overlapping processes. However, it is different from neural activity. The mind arises and develops when our interactions and experiences in this world are dynamically organized into systems responsible for the development of various mental processes. Mental processes include reasoning, learning, thinking, problem-solving, and perception.

Explaining Experiences

Experience can be defined as learning gained through everyday situations. Experiences are subjective and different for each person. We cannot directly observe or know someone’s experience. Only the experiencer can be aware and conscious of his experience. Experiences are therefore embedded in our consciousness and consciousness. Experience is subject to internal and external conditions of experience. The nature of experience can only be understood by analyzing a complex set of internal and external conditions. Experience is important because most of our learning is based on experience.

Explaining Behaviors

Behavior is an action or reaction we do or an activity we engage in. Sometimes I get nervous before an exam. Some actions, such as thinking, are simple or complex, brief or permanent. Some actions, on the other hand, can be seen or felt external and are called manifest, such as laughter. All behavior can be explained based on SR (Stimulus-Response-Relations). All behaviors, whether overt or not, are associated with or caused by stimuli. Both stimuli and responses can be internal or external. The same stimulus can elicit different responses based on biological variables. Emphasize your individual uniqueness and variation that sets you apart from the rest.

Psychology as Discipline

Examine behaviors, experiences, and mental processes. it seeks to understand and explain how the mind works and how different mental processes lead to different actions; As we observe others, our own perspectives and the way we perceive the world influence our interpretation of their actions and experiences. Psychologists try to minimize such biases in describing behaviors and experiences in various ways. Some do this by making their analysis scientific and objective. Some try to explain behavior from the experiencer’s perspective, believing that selectivity is a necessary aspect of human experience.

Psychology as a Hybrid Science

Psychology is a hybrid science influenced by both natural and social sciences. •
As a natural science
Modern psychology has developed through the application of scientific methods to the study of psychological phenomena.

  • As a physical science, it emphasizes data that can be studied under systematic and controlled conditions.
  • Quantitative and require analysis;
  • Influenced by physics and biology, it believes in Hypothetical Deductive Modeling (HDM).
  • Any or each hypothesis may be accepted or rejected based on available factors; This model suggests that scientific progress will occur if there is a theory to explain the phenomenon.
  • A hypothesis is an interim solution to a problem that guides research or theory.
  • This hypothesis has been successfully used to determine many theories related to learning and memory. For example, how a child grows up in the family shapes the child’s personality.

The Four Goals Of Psychology

Psychological research shows that there are four goals of psychology

  • Describe
  • Explain
  • Predict
  • Control/Change
  1. Describe:
    The Four Goals Explaining things is something we do every day without conscious thought or effort. However, explaining in psychology has a slightly different meaning than the explanations we give in everyday life. Explaining problems, problems, or behaviors is the first goal of psychology. Explanations help psychologists distinguish between normal and abnormal behavior and gain a more accurate understanding and perspective of human and animal behavior, behavior, and thinking.
  2. Explain:
    Psychologists are very interested in being able to explain behavior, not just explain it. It helps answer questions about why people react in certain ways, why they behave, and factors that influence personality, mental health, behavior, and more.
  3. Predicting: how we think and how we act is his third goal of psychology. By observing (describing and explaining) behavior that has been observed in the past, psychologists aim to predict how that behavior will occur again in the future and whether others will exhibit the same behavior. I’m here. Through the process of explaining explanations, psychologists are better able to understand what thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are contributing factors. This knowledge can then be used to predict why, when, and how these things will occur in the future.
  4. Change/Control: Psychology aims to change, influence, and control behavior in order to effect positive, constructive, meaningful, and lasting change in people’s lives and to influence behavior for the better. This is the final and most important goal of psychology.

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